We evaluated the effects of grape consumption on inflammation and oxidation in the presence or absence of dyslipidemias in metabolic syndrome (MetS). Men with MetS (n = 24), 11 with high triglycerides and low HDL and 13 with no dyslipidemia were recruited and randomly allocated to consume daily either 46 g of lyophilized grape powder (GRAPE), equivalent to 252 g fresh grapes, or placebo with an identical macronutrient composition and caloric value as GRAPE for four weeks. After a three-week washout, participants followed the alternate treatment. We measured changes between placebo and GRAPE periods in inflammatory and oxidative stress markers both in circulation and in gene expression. Changes in plasma adiponectin (p < 0.05), interleukin (IL)-10 (p < 0.005) and in mRNA expression of the inducible isoform of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) (p < 0.25) were increased in the GRAPE compared to the placebo period only in those individuals without dyslipidemia. Additionally, plasma IL-10 was negatively correlated with NOX2 expression, a marker of oxidative stress (r = −0.55, p < 0.01), while iNOS expression was positively correlated with the expression of superoxide dismutase 2 (r = 0.642, p < 0.01), a key anti-oxidative enzyme. Grape consumption displayed anti-oxidative and increased anti-inflammatory markers in the absence of the inflammatory milieu associated with dyslipidemias.
Barona, Jacqueline; Blesso, Christopher; Andersen, Catherine J.; Park, Youngki; Lee, Ji-Young; and Fernandez, Maria Luz, "Grape Consumption Increases Anti-Inflammatory Markers and Upregulates Peripheral Nitric Oxide Synthase in the Absence of Dyslipidemias in Men with Metabolic Syndrome" (2012). Biology Faculty Publications. 35.
Barona, Jacqueline, Christopher N. Blesso, Catherine J. Andersen, Youngki Park, Jiyoung Lee, and Maria Luz Fernandez. "Grape Consumption Increases Anti-Inflammatory Markers and Upregulates Peripheral Nitric Oxide Synthase in the Absence of Dyslipidemias in Men with Metabolic Syndrome." Nutrients 4, no.12 (2012): 1945-57.