Reactivity differences in the syntheses of chelating N-heterocyclic carbene complexes of rhodium are ascribed to ligand anisotropy
Chelating bis(imidazolium) salts having (CH2)n chains of different lengths (n = 1−4) linking the diazole rings show very large reactivity differences on metalation with [(cod)RhCl]2. Long linkers favor a square-planar Rh(I) product, while short linkers favor octahedral Rh(III). We ascribe the origin of the effect to the restricted rotation of the highly sterically anisotropic diazole rings and the different preferred orientations of these rings as n changes. Defining the x and y axes as the Rh−carbene bond directions, we find that with short linkers the diazole rings tend to be oriented close to the xy plane. This tends to favor Rh(III) because these complexes, [Rh(bis-carbene)I2(OAc)], have the lowest steric hindrance in the xy plane. With long linkers, the diazole rings tend to be aligned face to face along the ±z axis. This tends to favor Rh(I) because these complexes, [(cod)Rh(bis-carbene)]PF6, have the lowest steric hindrance along the ±z axis. Crystallographic studies are reported. Electrospray MS data provide evidence for strong metal−carbene binding.
Mata, Jose A.; Chianese, Anthony R.; Miecznikowski, John R.; Poyatos, Macarena; Peris, Eduardo; Faller, Jack W.; and Crabtree, Robert H., "Reactivity differences in the syntheses of chelating N-heterocyclic carbene complexes of rhodium are ascribed to ligand anisotropy" (2004). Chemistry & Biochemistry Faculty Publications. 36.
Mata, J.A.; Chianese, A.R.; Miecznikowski, J.R.; Poyatos, M.; Peris, E.; Faller, J.W.; Crabtree, R.H. “Reactivity differences in the syntheses of chelating N-heterocyclic carbene complexes of rhodium are ascribed to ligand anisotropy.” Organometallics, 2004, 23 (6), 1253-1263. doi:10.1021/om034240+.