Prostate cancer update: when to screen, how to treat
In American men, prostate cancer is the most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death. Confirmed risk factors for prostate cancer include increased age, African-American ethnicity, and having first-degree relatives with the disease; high fat consumption may also be implicated. Appropriate screening begins with digital rectal examination and measurement of prostate-specific antigen; biopsy is required to confirm the diagnosis. Watchful waiting, surgery, and radiation are standard treatment options. Adverse effects of the more aggressive therapies include urinary incontinence and erectile dysfunction.
Kazer, Meredith Wallace, "Prostate cancer update: when to screen, how to treat" (2004). Nursing Faculty Publications. 97.
Wallace, M. (2004). Prostate cancer update: when to screen, how to treat. Clinician Reviews, 14(8), 45-52.