Both metabolic syndrome (MetS) and elevated LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) increase the risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). We hypothesized that low HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) would further increase CVD risk in women having both conditions. To assess this, we recruited 89 women with MetS (25-72 y) and LDL-C ≥ 2.6 mmol/L. To determine whether plasma HDL-C concentrations were associated with dietary components, circulating atherogenic particles, and other risk factors for CVD, we divided the subjects into two groups: high HDL-C (H-HDL) (≥ 1.3 mmol/L, n = 32) and low HDL-C (L-HDL) (< 1.3 mmol/L, n = 57). Plasma lipids, insulin, adiponectin, apolipoproteins, oxidized LDL, Lipoprotein(a), and lipoprotein size and subfractions were measured, and 3-d dietary records were used to assess macronutrient intake. Women with L-HDL had higher sugar intake and glycemic load (P < 0.05), higher plasma insulin (P < 0.01), lower adiponectin (P < 0.05), and higher numbers of atherogenic lipoproteins such as large VLDL (P < 0.01) and small LDL (P < 0.001) than the H-HDL group. Women with L-HDL also had larger VLDL and both smaller LDL and HDL particle diameters (P < 0.001). HDL-C was positively correlated with LDL size (r = 0.691, P < 0.0001) and HDL size (r = 0.606, P < 0.001), and inversely correlated with VLDL size (r = -0.327, P < 0.01). We concluded that L-HDL could be used as a marker for increased numbers of circulating atherogenic lipoproteins as well as increased insulin resistance in women who are already at risk for CVD.
Nutrition Research and Practice
Fernandez, Maria Luz; Jones, Jennifer J.; Ackerman, Daniela; Barona, Jacqueline; Calle, Mariana; Comperatore, Michael V.; Kim, Jung-Eun; Andersen, Catherine J.; Leite, Jose O.; Volek, Jeff S.; McIntosh, Mark; Kalynch, Colleen; Najm, Wadie; and Lerman, Robert H., "Low HDL cholesterol is associated with increased atherogenic lipoproteins and insulin resistance in women classified with metabolic syndrome" (2010). Biology Faculty Publications. 36.
Fernandez, Maria Luz , Jones Jennifer J,1 Ackerman, Daniela, Barona, Jacqueline, Calle, Mariana, Comperatore, Michael V, Kim, Jung-Eun, Anderson, Catherine, Leite, Jose O, Volek, Jeff S, McIntosh, Mark, Kalynych, Colleen, Najm, Wadie, and Robert H Lerman. "Low HDL cholesterol is associated with increased atherogenic lipoproteins and insulin resistance in women classified with metabolic syndrome." Nutrition Research and Practice 4, no.6 (2010): 492-498.