This collection features books and book contributions written by faculty in the Department of Communication at Fairfield University.
Understanding Health Care in America: Culture, Capitalism, and Communication
This book examines the current state of American health care using a social science lens to focus on the interdependent, intercultural, economic, and communication aspects of access and delivery.
This text explores how the cultures of health care organizations, health professions, governments, and capitalism, as well as communication, all contribute to a disease-focused, economically driven, technology-centered health care system. It seeks to understand 21st century health care from a macro-level view based on historical realizations and the current plethora of interdependent, but self-serving realities that provide few, if any, incentives for organizational collaboration and change. The fact that the most expensive health care system in the world does not provide the healthiest outcomes is a driving force in this exploration. By reflecting on American values and beliefs regarding health care from philosophical, clinical, communication, and cost perspectives, this text is designed to encourage an organizational transformation at every level, from government to providers to patients.
This comprehensive survey is an important guide for those studying, or working in, health care professions, as well as health care policy and administration. It should also be of interest to any reader who seeks to better understand U.S. health care policy from social science, economic, and/or health communication perspectives.
The Palgrave Handbook of Deceptive Communication
Sean M. Horan, Melanie Booth-Butterfield, and Tony Docan-Morgan
Sean Horan is a contributing author (with Melanie Booth-Butterfield), "Angry Hugs and Withheld Love: An Overview of Deceptive Affection," Chapter 28, pp. 535-550.
Deception and truth-telling weave through the fabric of nearly all human interactions and every communication context. The Palgrave Handbook of Deceptive Communication unravels the topic of lying and deception in human communication, offering an interdisciplinary and comprehensive examination of the field, presenting original research, and offering direction for future investigation and application. Highly prominent and emerging deception scholars from around the world investigate the myriad forms of deceptive behavior, cross-cultural perspectives on deceit, moral dimensions of deceptive communication, theoretical approaches to the study of deception, and strategies for detecting and deterring deceit. Truth-telling, lies, and the many grey areas in-between are explored in the contexts of identity formation, interpersonal relationships, groups and organizations, social and mass media, marketing, advertising, law enforcement interrogations, court, politics, and propaganda. This handbook is designed for advanced undergraduate and graduate students, academics, researchers, practitioners, and anyone interested in the pervasive nature of truth, deception, and ethics in the modern world.
Macmillan Encyclopedia of Families, Marriages, and Intimate Relationships, 1st Edition
James J. Ponzetti, Maureen Blankemeyer, Sean M. Horan, Heidi Lyons, and Aya Shigeto
In addition to being an editor of the encyclopedia, Sean Horan is a contributing author, "Deceptive Affection."
Macmillan Encyclopedia of Families, Marriages, and Intimate Relationships will provide up-to-date information on such diverse topics as adolescent parenthood, family planning, cohabitation, widowhood, domestic violence, child abuse and neglect, codependency, and commuter marriages. Wide-ranging in scope, this encyclopedia complements courses in a variety of disciplines, including sociology, psychology, anthropology, gender/women’s studies, and others. Features include a thematic outline and a comprehensive index.
An Integrated Approach to Communication Theory and Research, 3rd Edition
Don W. Stacks, Michael B. Salwen, Kristen C. Eichhorn, Sean M. Horan, and Leah E. Bryant
Sean Horan (with Leah E. Bryant) is a contributing author "Relational Communication," Chapter 28.
This new edition provides a comprehensive overview of current theory and research written by the top theorists and researchers in each area. It has been updated to address the growing influence of technology, changing relationships, and several growing integrated approaches to communication and includes seven new chapters on:
- Digital Media
- Media Effects
- Dark Side
- Applied Communication
- Relational Communication
- Instructional Communication
- Communication and the Law
The book continues to be essential reading for students and faculty who want a thorough overview of contemporary communication theory and research.
Handbook of Instructional Communication: Rhetorical and relational perspectives
Marian L. Houser, Angela Hosek, Rebecca M. Chory, and Sean M. Horan
Sean Horan is a contributing author (with Rebecca M. Chory), "[Re]Negotiating power and influence in the classroom," pp.112-125.
The Handbook of Instructional Communication offers a comprehensive collection of theory and research focusing on the role and effects of communication in instructional environments. Now in its Second Edition, the handbook covers an up-to-date array of topics that includes social identity, technology, and civility and dissent. This volume demonstrates how to understand, plan, and conduct instructional communication research as well as consult with scholars across the communication discipline. Designed to address the challenges facing educators in traditional and nontraditional settings, this edition features a wealth of in-text resources, including directions for future research, suggested readings, and surveys for instructional assessment.
International encyclopedia of interpersonal communication
Charles R. Berger, Michael E. Roloff, Steve R. Wilson, James Price Dillard, John Caughlin, Denise Solomon, and Sean M. Horan
Sean Horan is a contributing author, "Physical and social attractiveness."
The International Encyclopedia of Interpersonal Communication presents a comprehensive overview of the theories, concepts and processes that interpersonal communication researchers use to explain a wide variety of social interaction phenomena.
-Over 270 entries explore: interpersonal conflict, negotiation, relationship development, interactional adaptation, social influence, and, communication in the workplace, at school and within family life
-Encompasses both theory and practice, bringing together the fascinating and groundbreaking research from the field, from the first generation of interpersonal communication scholars to the very latest developments
-Part of The Wiley Blackwell-ICA International Encyclopedias of Communication series, published in conjunction with the International Communication Association
Cases in organizational and managerial communication: Stretching boundaries
Jeremy P. Fyke, Jeralyn L. Faris, Patrice M. Buzzanell, Hailey Gillen Hoke, Sean M. Horan, Renee L. Cowan, and Rebecca M. Chory
Sean Horan is a contributing author (with Hailey Gillen Hoke, Renee L. Cowan, and Rebecca M. Chory), "Jim and Pam made this look so easy," pp.265-269.
In the 21st century, shifting workplace demographics, globalization, and the flattening of the world via new communication technologies has ushered in radical changes in our understandings of organizations and their members. Given the interest in engaged scholarship and more flexible and virtual forms within organizational communication, cases in this volume cross over different areas within the field and related disciplines. Furthermore, they cover topics and populations that are increasingly being seen in organizational communication literature. Cases delve into organizing structures, relationships, and visions for global not-for-profits, hybrid, creative industry, and entrepreneurial organizations. Some cases are "positive" in orientation and display exemplars of organizations that have qualities to emulate. Others display "destructive" elements and processes (e.g., dysfunctional leadership, workplace bullying). Furthermore, the cases reflect an awareness of the necessity of intercultural communication competencies, emphasizing communication in multicultural contexts (e.g., China, India, Africa, Russia). This book can benefit instructors and students in at least four ways. First, it provides instructors with an application-based teaching tool to help spark discussion. Second, students often find case studies interesting and applicable to their current and future work lives, especially undergraduates who anticipate graduating within the next year or two and entering full-time membership in the labor force. Third, students and instructors note that cases help students grasp course materials that may be otherwise challenging. In their case study learning, students sometimes derive insights, lessons, and strategies that broaden the theoretical and practical implications for which instructors plan. Finally, for graduate students, the book encourages reflection on important topics for future research and provides a resource for making their lessons come alive in classrooms and in other settings.
Geoblocking and Video Culture
Ramon Lobato, James Meese, Adam Rugg, and B. Burroughs
Adam Rugg (with B. Burroughs) is a contributing author, "Periscope, Live-Streaming and Mobile Video Culture".
Book description: How do global audiences use streaming platforms like YouTube, Netflix and iPlayer? How does the experience of digital video change according to location? What strategies do people use to access out-of-region content? What are the commercial and governmental motivations behind geoblocking? Geoblocking and Global Video Culture explores the cultural implications of access control and circumvention in an age of VPNs. Featuring seventeen chapters from diverse critical positions and locations – including China, Iran, Malaysia, Turkey, Cuba, Brazil, USA, Sweden and Australia.
Health Communication for Health Care Professionals: An Applied Approach
Michael P. Pagano
According to the Joint Commission, over 75% of all serious medical errors in this country result from miscommunication. Based in these adverse realities and the author philosophy that communication is a clinical skill integral to effective health care delivery, this comprehensive text addresses the theories and abilities needed by all health care providers. The only text written specifically for students of nursing, medicine, physical therapy,pharmacy, dentistry, physician assistants and opticians, this book incorporates recommendations for specific multimedia, suggestions for class discussion and interactive case studies to provide a rich and multi-perspective learning experience for gaining optimal expertise in effective health communication.
The author underscores the importance of developing and maintaining successful relationships with patients, peers, and colleagues as a cornerstone of effective health care outcomes. With an emphasis on interactive learning, the text utilizes communication theories to analyze verbal and non-verbal behaviors in diverse health care contexts and assess which are more effective and why. Summaries at the end of each chapter discuss health communication outcomes. Chapters cover interpersonal and gendered communication, provider-patient communication, intercultural communication, organizational communication, team communication, malpractice, palliative care, end-of-life communication, and many other topics. -- Publisher description.
Communication case studies for health care professionals : an applied approach, 2nd edition
Michael P. Pagano
Preceded by: Interactive case studies in health communication / Michael P. Pagano. c2010.
The importance of good communication between health professionals and patients has been well documented. Not only does it foster patient satisfaction, it can have a profound effect on health outcomes. This casebook/workbook helps students, faculty, and health care providers to assess and practice key interpersonal and health communication skills. It presents 45 communication scenarios for students to critique and rewrite in order to enhance the interpersonal relationships of participants. The second edition builds on the first with the addition of 11 new cases and theoretical discussions of interpersonal, gender, intercultural, organizational, and media communication. Additionally, the new edition analyzes each scenario in detail to facilitate broader use by an interprofessional team and expand awareness of the specific skills needed by each health care professional. The new Take-Away Considerations feature at the end of each case study reinforces an understanding of the elements of effective communication. With an eye to time management, each chapter includes effective and ineffective examples of interpersonal communication and interpersonal relationship building. Cases follow the same format including theoretical underpinnings of a particular skill or set of communication skills, an overview of key topics, initial interaction (for role play or analysis), discussion questions (with space for answers), interactive activities and an alternate interaction highlighting more effective communication behaviors, follow-up discussion, key points, and Take-Away Considerations. Scenarios can be used for role play and follow-up discussion in the classroom, for small group work, or individually, as well as in the simulation center and for interprofessional education courses.
Becoming Beholders: Cultivating Sacramental Imagination and Actions in College Classrooms
Thomas M. Landy, Karen E. Eifler, Angela Kim Harkins, and Michael P. Pagano
Angela Kim Harkins is a contributing author, "Cultivating Empathy and Mindfulness: Religious Praxis", pp. 275-288.
Michael Pagano is a contributing author, "Exorcizing taboos: teaching end-of-life communication", pp. 176-191.
Book description: Catholic colleges and universities have long engaged in conversation about how to fulfill their mission in creative ways across the curriculum. The "sacramental vision" of Catholic higher education posits that God is made manifest in the study of all disciplines. Becoming Beholders is the first book to share pedagogical strategies about how to do that. Twenty faculty—from many religious backgrounds and teaching in fields as varied as chemistry, economics, English, history, mathematics, sociology, and theology—discuss ways that their teaching nourishes students' ability to find the transcendent in their studies. -- Publisher description
War of the Worlds to Social Media
Joy Hayes, Kathleen Battles, Wendy Hilton-Morrow, and Adam Rugg
Adam Rugg is a contributing author, "Risk, Crisis, and Mobilization in the Twitter Use of US Senatorial Candidates in 2010".
Book description: Seventy-five years after the infamous broadcast, does War of the Worlds still matter? This book answers with a resounding yes! Contributors revisit the broadcast event in order to reconsider its place as a milestone in media history, and to explore its role as a formative event for understanding citizens’ media use in times of crisis. Uniquely focused on the continuities between radio’s «new» media moment and our contemporary era of social media, the collection takes War of the Worlds as a starting point for investigating key issues in twenty-first-century communication, including: the problem of misrepresentation in mediated communication; the importance of social context for interpreting communication; and the dynamic role of listeners, viewers and users in talking back to media producers and institutions. By examining the «crisis» moment of the original broadcast in its international, academic, technological, industrial, and historical context, as well as the role of contemporary new media in ongoing «crisis» events, this volume demonstrates the broad, historical link between new media and crisis over the course of a century.
Your Ad Here: The Cool Sell of Guerrilla Marketing
Book description: Amidst the profound upheavals in technology, economics, and culture that mark the contemporary moment, marketing strategies have multiplied, as brand messages creep ever deeper into our private lives. In Your Ad Here, an engaging and timely new book, Michael Serazio investigates the rise of “guerrilla marketing” as a way of understanding increasingly covert and interactive flows of commercial persuasion. Digging through a decade of trade press coverage and interviewing dozens of agency CEOs, brand managers, and creative directors, Serazio illuminates a diverse and fascinating set of campaign examples: from the America’s Army video game to Pabst Blue Ribbon’s “hipster hijack,” from buzz agent bloggers and tweeters to The Dark Knight’s “Why So Serious?” social labyrinth.
Blending rigorous analysis with eye-opening reporting and lively prose, Your Ad Here reveals the changing ways that commercial culture is produced today. Serazio goes behind-the-scenes with symbolic creators to appreciate the professional logic informing their work, while giving readers a glimpse into this new breed of “hidden persuaders” optimized for 21st-century media content, social patterns, and digital platforms. Ultimately, this new form of marketing adds up to a subtle, sophisticated orchestration of consumer conduct and heralds a world of advertising that pretends to have nothing to sell.
Simulation Scenarios for Nurse Educators: Making it Real (2nd ed.)
Suzanne Hetzel Campbell, K. Daley, Michael P. Pagano, and P. Greiner
Michael Pagano is a contributing author (with P. Greiner), "Health Communication".
Book description: This second edition of an acclaimed book for nurse educators provides a practical, step-by-step guide to designing and developing simulation scenarios and integrating them into the nursing curriculum. Based on the findings of an extensive focus group that included contributing authors and new faculty, the text has been updated to include changes in simulation pedagogy since the first edition was published in 2008, and thoroughly reorganized to facilitate greater ease of use. An outstanding feature of the text is its provision of scenarios that are easily adaptable to the instructor's own lab. Additionally, these scenarios are ordered according to their complexity for quick access. The authors provide concrete information about the use of simulation in a variety of programs, courses, and schools and include real life scenarios of how nursing faculty have mastered the challenge of integrating simulation into their curriculums. The book provides recommendations on integrating point of care decision-making tools, necessary equipment, how to set up a lab (including static to high fidelity mannequins), scenario running instructions, and much more. The text also includes an enhanced eBook guide. -- Publisher description.
Jesuit and Feminist Education: Intersections in Teaching and Learning for the Twenty-first Century
Jocelyn M. Boryczka, Elizabeth A. Petrino, Robbin D. Crabtree, Joseph A. DeFeo, and Melissa M. Quan
Robbin Crabtree (with Joseph DeFeo and Melissa Quan) is a contributing author, "Feminist Pedagogy & the Ignatian Paradigm, and Service Learning: Distinctive Roots, Common Objectives, and Intriguing Challenges".
Book description: Given its long tradition of authentic dialogue with other religious and philosophical perspectives, Jesuit education is uniquely suited to address the range of opportunities and challenges teachers and students face in the twenty-first century. At first glance, Jesuit and feminist ways of understanding the world appear to be antagonistic approaches to teaching and learning. But much can be gained by focusing on how feminism, in dialogue with Jesuit education, can form, inform, and transform each other, our institutions, and the people in them. Both traditions are committed to educating the whole person by integrating reason and emotion. Both also argue for connecting theory and practice and applying knowledge in context. As unabashedly value-driven educational approaches, both openly commit to social justice and an end to oppression in its many forms. With strong humanistic roots, Jesuit and feminist education alike promote the liberal arts as critical to developing engaged citizens of the world. This book explores how the principles and practices of Ignatian pedagogy overlap and intersect with contemporary feminist theory in order to gain deeper insight into the complexities of today’s multicultural educational contexts. Drawing on intersectionality, a method of inquiry that locates individual and collective standpoints in relation to social, political, and economic structures, the volume highlights points of convergence and divergence between Ignatian pedagogy, a five-hundred year old humanistic tradition, and more recent feminist theory in order to explore how educators might find strikingly similar methods that advocate common goals—including engaging with issues such as race, gender, diversity, and social justice. By reflecting on these shared perspectives and inherent differences from both practical and theoretical approaches, the contributors of this volume initiate a dynamic dialogue about Jesuit and feminist education that will enliven and impact our campuses for years to come.
Authoring Patient Records: An Interactive Guide
Michael P. Pagano
Authoring Patient Records: An Interactive Guide presents both the theory and rationale for the process of developing medical records, as well as opportunities for readers to practice the new skill. Each chapter discusses how to use the authoring process to create effective records, using examples and sample documents to help illustrate potential problems and solutions. This text has an interactive format including margin notes to help the reader assess his/her understanding, as well as opportunities to practice the authoring process being discussed. An instructor’s manual for online use is also included. -- Publisher description.
The International Studies Encyclopedia. Vol. III
R. A. Denemark and Gisela Gil-Egui
Gisela Gil-Egui is a contributing author, "E‐Government".
Book description: The International Studies Encyclopedia and its online version, International Studies Online, published in association with the International Studies Association (ISA), is the most comprehensive reference work of its kind for the fields of international studies and international relations. The print version is arranged across 12 volumes in an A-Z format and brings together specially commissioned, peer reviewed essays, written and edited by an international team of the world's best scholars and teachers.
Encyclopedia of Case Study Research
A. Mills, G. Durepos, E. Wiebe, and Michael P. Pagano
Michael Pagano is a contributing author "Healthcare Practice Guidelines and Case Studies".
Book description: The Encyclopedia of Case Study Research provides a compendium on the important methodological issues in conducting case study research and explores both the strengths and weaknesses of different paradigmatic approaches. These two volumes focus on the distinctive characteristics of case study research and its place within and alongside other research methodologies.
Interactive Case Studies in Health Communication
Michael P. Pagano
Interactive Case Studies in Health Communication covers a wide variety of health communication topics including nonverbal communication, family communication, telephone conversations, managed care, emotional issues, hostile patient or family members, the media’s impact on provider-patient communication, intercultural communication and end-of-life conversations. This book also highlights the importance of interpersonal communication and relationship-building for information sharing and collaborative decision-making. -- Publisher description.
Communications Policy: Theories and Issues
S. Papathanassopoulos, R. Negrine, Gisela Gil-Egui, C. M. Stewart, and Y. Tian
Gisela Gil-Egui is a contributing author (with Stewart, C. M., and Tian, Y), "Framing the information society: Comparing policy approaches by the US and the EU".
Book description: Culture, politics, economics and technology all impact upon policy decisions. To investigate the factors that influence communications policy, however, one has to go beyond conventional views of media and communication studies and combine these with policy studies.Communications Policy: Theories and Issues utilizes new research to highlight key debates and developments, and addresses a broad spectrum of contemporary concerns regarding the structure and the organization of communications systems in the past, present and future. Combining theoretical analysis with empirical research findings, this comprehensive text explores the contemporary theories and issues in communications policy that affect all democratic societies as they seek to address the challenges of emerging information and communications technologies.
Feminist Pedagogy: Looking Back to Move Forward
Robbin D. Crabtree, David Alan Sapp, and Adela C. Licona
In addition to co-editing, David A. Sapp (CAS, English, Fairfield University) and Robbin Crabtree (CAS, Communication, Fairfield University) co-authored the introduction, "The passion and the praxis of feminist pedagogy".
Book Description: This collection of essays traces the evolution of feminist pedagogy over the past twenty years, exploring both its theoretical and its practical dimensions.
Feminist pedagogy is defined as a set of epistemological assumptions, teaching strategies, approaches to content, classroom practices, and teacher-student relationships grounded in feminist theory. To apply this philosophy in the classroom, the editors maintain that feminist scholars must critically engage in dialogue and reflection about both what and how they teach, as well as how who they are affects how they teach. In identifying the themes and tensions within the field and in questioning why feminist pedagogy is particularly challenging in some educational environments, these articles illustrate how and why feminist theory is practiced in all kinds of classrooms.
In exploring feminist pedagogy in all its complexities, the contributors identify the practical applications of feminist theory in teaching practices, classroom dynamics, and student-teacher relationships. This volume will help readers develop theoretically grounded classroom practices informed by the advice and experience of fellow practitioners and feminist scholars. – Publisher description
Communicating spirituality in health care
In addition to editing, Margaret Wills is a contributing author, "Introduction: Reclaiming the spiritual in health care."
This edited volume—the first of its kind in the health communication field—presents a multifaceted analysis of the role of spiritual communication in health and healing. There are 14 chapters, including an introductory chapter that offers a new model of health inclusive of spirituality. Each chapter, addressing specific issues pertaining to religious and spiritual communication practices and the effects on individual health, is written by a contributing health communication scholar or health professional. Readers will find value in the variety of health communication contexts with analyses examining spiritual communication and its role in health behavior/outcomes in traditional contexts such as the church (pastor/health minister and parishioner) and the hospital (nurse/patient), and in alternative contexts such as holistic healing communities. As well, the scholars and health professionals contributing to this text investigate these issues using both qualitative and quantitative analyses, drawing from a variety of approaches including rhetorical criticism, behavioral analysis, ethnography, and cultural studies. More and more, the medical and scientific community recognizes the potential import of spirituality in health behavior and outcomes. An examination of spiritual communication and healing can ultimately assist health care practitioners in broadening their perspective on viable paths to wellness. It can assist individuals as well, informing and empowering them as they seek to recover, maintain, or enhance their overall health. Given the ongoing healthcare crisis and the ever-increasing diversity of our nation, broadening our conception of well being to include the spiritual component seems essential. As such, this book is an important addition to the literature devoted to health communication.
Designing Globally Networked Learning Environments: Visionary Partnerships, Policies, and Pedagogies
Doreen Starke-Meyerring, Melanie Wilson, Robbin D. Crabtree, David Alan Sapp, Jose Alfonso Malespin, and Gonzalo Norori
Robbin Crabtree (CAS, Communication, Fairfield University) and David. A. Sapp (CAS, English, Fairfield University) are contributing authors (Chapter 6).
Book description: Faculty, administrators, and others in higher education face growing pressures to position their institutions, programs, and courses in "global markets" and to prepare students for global work and citizenship. These pressures raise urgent questions: What might higher education look like in a globally networked world? Do traditional industrial models of learning suffice, or what new visions for learning are emerging? What does it take to implement and maintain these visions? To address these questions, Designing Globally Networked Learning Environments brings together 25 educators from four continents, who share their richly diverse visions for teaching and learning in a globally networked world. What unites these visions is that they break with traditional models of repackaging traditional institutionally bounded courses for online delivery in global markets. Instead, these educators build robust partnerships to design globally networked learning environments that connect students with peers, instructors, and communities across traditional institutional, national, and other boundaries to facilitate the kind of cross-boundary knowledge making that students as professionals and citizens will need to participate in the shaping of an emerging global order and to address the most pressing global problems we face. The book offers these visions as opportunities for faculty, program directors, administrators, international program experts, instructional designers, faculty development experts, and others in higher education to work together to deliberate, develop, and shape inspiring visions for globally networked learning and to become active participants in the globalization of higher education. – Publisher description
Communication Activism: Vol. 1, Communication for Social Change
Lawrence R. Frey, Kevin M. Carragee, Robbin D. Crabtree, and Leigh Arden Ford
Robbin Crabtree is a contributing author, Chapter 6.
Book description: The need for communication scholars to engage in direct vigorous action in support of needed social change has never been more apparent and important, for there is no shortage of social issues and problems that demand attention. In short, communication scholars need to engage in "communication activism." The two volumes showcase how scholars have engaged in communication activism to assist individuals, groups, organizations, and communities to secure social reform. Volume 1 presents research studies that promote public dialogue, debate, and discussion and that demonstrate how communication consulting can be used to accomplish needed social change. Together the two texts demonstrate the significant effects that communication scholars, working from many different theoretical and methodological traditions within the discipline, can have on promoting social change, especially for those who are most marginalized, when they engage in communication activism. – Publisher Description
The Sage Handbook of Conflict Communication: Integrating Theory, Research, and Practice
John G. Oetzel, Stella Ting-Toomey, Bibiana Arcos, Phola Mabizela, Michael Weinman, and Qin Zhang
Qin Zhang is a contributing author (with John G. Oetzel, Bibiana Arcos, Phola Mabizela, and Michael Weinman), "Historical, Political, and Spiritual Factors of Conflict: Understanding Conflict Perspectives and Communication in the Muslim World, China, Colombia, and South Africa," pp. 549-574.
Book description: The SAGE Handbook of Conflict Communication: Integrating Theory, Research, and Practice is the first resource to synthesize key theories, research, and practices of conflict communication in a variety of contexts. Editors John Oetzel and Stella Ting-Toomey, as well as expert researchers in the field, emphasize constructive conflict management from a communication perspective which places primacy in the message as the focus of conflict research and practice.