Constructing and validating a teacher immediacy scale: A Chinese perspective
The purpose of this study is to construct and validate a scale of perceived teacher immediacy from a Chinese cultural perspective. Based on the immediacy-exchange theories that emphasize the core role culture plays in the assessment of immediacy, this study argues that the validity and reliability of existing teacher verbal and nonverbal immediacy scales developed from U.S. classrooms are not warranted in Chinese classrooms. Open-ended questionnaires and focus-group interviews suggest three dimensions of teacher immediacy from a Chinese perspective: instructional, relational, and personal. The Chinese Teacher Immediacy Scale is validated via confirmatory factor analysis and correlation with measures of teacher clarity and classroom communication apprehension.
Zhang, Qin and Oetzel, John G., "Constructing and validating a teacher immediacy scale: A Chinese perspective" (2006). Communication Faculty Publications. 36.
Zhang, Qin & Oetzel, John G. (2006). "Constructing and validating a teacher immediacy scale: A Chinese perspective." Communication Education, 55(2), 218-241.