This collection features books and book contributions written by faculty in the Department of Religious Studies at Fairfield University.
Paul F. Lakeland
Try to define a layperson without using the word not: cannot preach or say mass, is not a priest, is not in a position of leadership in the church. This generally negative or passive understanding of the laity was epitomized in a statement of Pope Pius X: “The one duty of the multitude [i.e., the laity] is to allow themselves to be led and, like a docile fl ock, to follow the Pastors.” The Second Vatican Council, with its emphasis on the priesthood of all believers rooted in baptism, changed all that. Yet, writes Paul Lakeland, “many of our bishops and not a few of the lay members of the church are attracted to a dangerously incomplete vision of Catholicism…one that sidesteps the major themes and key insights of Vatican II.” In Catholicism at the Crossroads, he teases out themes first developed in a much more formal way in his prize-winning The Liberation of the Laity. In his new book he is “talking to ordinary Catholics in language that requires no special expertise in theology and does not necessitate constant reference to a dictionary.”
Baptism, says Lakeland, not priestly ordination, is the basis for all mission and ministry, and the mission of those baptized into Christ is to be the sacrament of God’s love in a world rife with violence and brutal inequity. The specific mission of the laity is to the world, whereas the mission of the clergy is to the household of the faith. Yet lay people can’t leave “church business” exclusively to the clergy, and the clergy can’t leave the church’s “worldly mission” exclusively to the laity. The key to resolving these overlapping responsibilities is by becoming an adult church, an open church in an open society. In pursuing this goal, Lakeland develops “ten steps toward a more adult church.” -- Publisher description.
Fred Skolnik, Angela Kim Harkins, and Franklin T. Harkins
Angela Kim Harkins (with Franklin T. Harkins) is a contributing author, "Old Latin/Vulgate," section in “Bible, ancient translations.”
Book description: Provides an exhaustive and organized overview of Jewish life and knowledge from the Second Temple period to the contemporary State of Israel, from Rabbinic to modern Yiddish literature, from Kabbalah to "Americana" and from Zionism to the contribution of Jews to world cultures, Encyclopaedia Judaica, 2nd edition is important to scholars, general readers and students.
Raymond F. Bulman, Frederick J. Parrella, and Paul F. Lakeland
Paul Lakeland is a contributing author, "The Laity", pp. 193.208.
Book description: The second Vatican Council was convened by Pope John XXIII between 1962 and 1965. It marked a fundamental shift towards the modern Church, and many of the rules and practices established in the 16th century at Trent collapsed and were replaced. In this book a distinguished team of Catholic scholars offers a close examination of the full nature and scope of these changes. Each contributor offers an impartial investigation of a particular issue. Included are chapters on such topics as scripture and tradition, priestly formation, women, popular devotion, canon law, church music, marriage, and the universal catechism. The first book to present a comprehensive overview of the relationship between the two great Councils, this will be an invaluable resource for students and scholars of theology and ecclesiastical history, as well as for bishops, priests, and ministers.
Tibetan Buddhist Literature and Praxis: Studies in its Formative Period, 900-1400 Proceedings of the Xth Seminar of the International Association for Tibetan Studies
Ronald M. Davidson and Christian Wedemeyer
Ronald M. Davidson, in addition to being a co-editor, is a contributing author, "Imperial Agency in the Gsar-ma Treasure Texts during the Tibetan Renaissance: the Rgyal po bla gter and Related Literature", pp. 125-148
Collectively, the papers of this volume reveal the cultural dynamism of Tibet in the period between 900 and 1400CE, when the fundamental contours of Tibetan Buddhism were still fluid and highly contested. The papers address a spectrum of issues in Tibetan religion and literature, ranging in time and space from the far eastern oasis of Dunhuang in the tenth century through ‘high classical’ developments in Central Tibet in the early fifteenth century. It is divided into four parts, addressing respectively literary and religious issues in tenth-century Dunhuang, the textual history of the Old Tantric Canon (Rnying ma’i rgyud ’bum), the development of Tibetan religious literature in the new translation period, and the history and transmission of several influential systems of esoteric Buddhism.
Inculturation and the Church in North America (The Boston College-Church in the 21st Century Series)
T. Frank Kennedy S.J. and Nancy Dallavalle
Nancy Dallavalle is a contributing author, “Resiliant Citizens: The Public (and Gendered) Face of American Catholicism".
Book description: What does the Church look like to outsiders? How do Catholics understand their shared identify from within? How do Catholics participate in the Church, and what is distinctive about the Church in diverse settings? In Inculturation and the Church in North America, T. Frank Kennedy introduces the work of leading Catholic theologians, writers, and scholars to address the challenge of inculturation in the North American context.
Charles H. Lippy and Paul F. Lakeland
Paul Lakeland is a contributing author, "Roman Catholicism After the Sex Scandals", pp. 445-461.
Book description: Addresses the current state of religion in the U.S. and examines the many ways it has changed and been transformed, as well as how those changes impact us personally and as a society.
Over the last 25 years, there has been much talk of the presumed decline in religious participation in America. In addition, from the 1960s on, surveys that mark the influence of religion in American life have shown a mixed response. Many suggest that religion is losing influence in the culture as a whole; others indicate that while organized religion may be experiencing challenges, spirituality is on the upswing. At the same time, however, there have been signs that religious life in the U.S. is extraordinarily healthy. But religion in America has changed, to be sure, in a number of ways. And it has changed us and our culture in return. This timely set looks at the major forces that are changing the shape of religion in American life.
With an influx of immigrants from Asia, Latin America, and other regions, the diversity of religion has grown to include Buddhism, Hinduism, Islam, and other faiths. Latin American and African American communities have experienced changes in the ways they practice their faith and in turn influence American culture in general. Women have entered the clergy in record numbers, and the push for allowing women and gays to enter the clergy in religions that limit or prohibit their roles is on the increase. In addition, gay couples are leading the same-sex marriage movement, and other social issues such as abortion, stem-cell research, end of life care, etc., are still being debated. Interest over how people actually live out their religion or spirituality has mushroomed in recent decades, thanks in part to the information revolution and popular culture. What folks do when they gather together to worship, and where they come together, has changed dramatically with the advent of the Internet and the role of sports in American life. So much has changed, and faith in America has become more important than ever—as part of our culture, our way of life, and the way we relate to each other and the world around us. The essays found in these pages shed light on our understanding of these transformations and help us comprehend the enormous role of religion in our society and in our world.
Bernhard Scheid, Mark Teeuwan, and Ronald M. Davidson
Ronald M. Davidson is a contributing author, "The Problem of Secrecy in Indian Tantric Buddhism", pp. 60-77.
The Japanese Middle Ages were a period when forms of secrecy dominated religious practice. This fascinating collection traces out the secret characteristics and practices in Japanese religion, as well as analyzing the decline of religious esotericism in Japan. The essays in this impressive work refer to Esoteric Buddhism as the core of Japan’s "culture of secrecy". Esoteric Buddhism developed in almost all Buddhist countries of Asia, but it was of particular importance in Japan where its impact went far beyond the borders of Buddhism, also affecting Shinto as well as non-religious forms of discourse. The contributors focus on the impact of Esoteric Buddhism on Japanese culture, and also include comparative chapters on India and China. Whilst concentrating on the Japanese medieval period, this book will give readers familiar with present day Japan, many explanations for the still visible remnants of Japan’s medieval culture of secrecy.
Church Ethics and Its Organizational Context: Learning from the Sex Abuse Scandal in the Catholic Church
Jean M. Bartunek, Mary Ann Hinsdale, James F. Keenan, and Paul F. Lakeland
Paul Lakeland is a contributing author, "Understanding the Crisis in the Church", pp. 3-15.
Book description: Church Ethics and Its Organizational Context is the first book to provide a broadly interdisciplinary approach to understanding the leadership crisis in the Catholic Church in the wake of the sex abuse scandal and how it was handled. Well-known scholars, religious clergy, and laymen in the trenches of church formation and leadership come together from the disciplines of organizational behavior, theology, sociology, history, and law, to foster the creation of a new code of ethics that is both ecclesial and professional. Touching on issues of governance, authority, accountability, and transparency, this volume goes on to specifically explore whether and how professional ethics can shape the identity and actions of Church leaders, ministers, and their congregations. While evoked by the sex scandal in the Church, the essays in this book raise questions that have implications far beyond this current issue, to much broader issues such as the role of professionalism in ethics and what it means for an organization to engage in moral action.
Ronald M. Davidson
How did a society on the edge of collapse and dominated by wandering bands of armed men give way to a vibrant Buddhist culture, led by yogins and scholars? Ronald M. Davidson explores how the translation and spread of esoteric Buddhist texts dramatically shaped Tibetan society and led to its rise as the center of Buddhist culture throughout Asia, replacing India as the perceived source of religious ideology and tradition. During the Tibetan Renaissance (950-1200 C.E.), monks and yogins translated an enormous number of Indian Buddhist texts. They employed the evolving literature and practices of esoteric Buddhism as the basis to reconstruct Tibetan religious, cultural, and political institutions. Many translators achieved the de facto status of feudal lords and while not always loyal to their Buddhist vows, these figures helped solidify political power in the hands of religious authorities and began a process that led to the Dalai Lama's theocracy. Davidson's vivid portraits of the monks, priests, popular preachers, yogins, and aristocratic clans who changed Tibetan society and culture further enhance his perspectives on the tensions and transformations that characterized medieval Tibet.
Mary Hines, Declan Marmion, and Nancy Dallavalle
Nancy Dallavalle is a contributing author, “Feminist Theologies".
Book description: Karl Rahner (1904-1984) was one of the most significant theological voices of the twentieth century. For many his theology symbolizes the Catholic Church's entry into modernity. Part of his enduring appeal lies in his ability to reflect on a variety of issues in theology and spirituality and direct this plurality into a few basic convictions. In addition to the main themes of Rahner's work, this Companion assesses his significance for contemporary theology through dialogues with many current concerns including: religious pluralism, spirituality, postmodernism, ecumenism, ethics and developments in political and feminist theologies.
Constructive Theology: A Contemporary Approach to Classical Themes: A project on the workgroup on constructive theology
Paul F. Lakeland and Serena Jones
Coordinated by Serene Jones of Yale Divinity School and Paul Lakeland of Fairfield University, fifty of North America's top teaching theologians (members of the Workgroup on Constructive Christian Theology) have devised a text that allows students to experience the deeper point of theological questions, to delve into the fractures and disagreements that figured in the development of traditional Christian doctrines, and to sample the diverse and conflicting theological voices that vie for allegiance today.
Roberto Vitali and Ronald M. Davidson
Ronald M. Davidson is a contributing author, "The Kingly Cosmogonic Narrative and Tibetan Histories: Indian Origins, Tibetan Space, and the bKa’ ’chems ka khol ma Synthesis", pp. 64-83.
Paul F. Lakeland
The present crisis in the American Catholic Church stems from a two-fold source: lay people are powerless while the bishops are accountable to no one but the pope and the curia. While the number of lay people exercising ministries in the church has grown enormously over the past thirty years (largely due to the shortage of priests), there has been little or no theological reflection till now on the genuine role of the laity. It is only from such reflection that structural reform of the church will come.The first half of The Liberation of the Laity concentrates on the fortunes of the laity, theologically speaking, between Vatican I (1870) and Vatican II (1962-65). It examines the growth of the "new theology" in France in the 1940s and 1950s and shows how in the work of one of its leading practitioners, Yves Congar, much of the vision of the laity expressed at Vatican II was anticipated. Seeing the years after the council as decades of missed opportunities to recognize the role of the laity, the book then turns to a series of constructive proposals for the liberation of the laity, and thus the liberation of the church. It discusses the importance of "secularity," the need for a "lay liberation theology," and the centrality of the struggles against global capitalism in the mission of the church. It ends with a chapter envisioning dramatic changes in ministry and governing structures, in which accountability will be central, "servant leaders" will include women and married people, and both ecclesiastical careerism and the College of Cardinals will be history.
Karl Potter and Ronald M. Davidson
Ronald M. Davidson is a contributing author, "Sthiramati's Pañcaskandhaprakaranavaibhasya", pp. 514-523.
Ronald M. Davidson
Book description: Despite the rapid spread of Buddhism -- especially the esoteric system of Tantra, one of its most popular yet most misunderstood forms -- the historical origins of Buddhist thought and practice remain obscure. This groundbreaking work describes the genesis of the Tantric movement in early medieval India, where it developed as a response to, and in some ways an example of, the feudalization of Indian society. Drawing on primary documents -- many translated for the first time -- from Sanskrit, Prakrit, Tibetan, Bengali, and Chinese, Ronald Davidson shows how changes in medieval Indian society, including economic and patronage crises, a decline in women's participation, and the formation of large monastic orders, led to the rise of the esoteric tradition in India that became the model for Buddhist cultures in China, Tibet, and Japan.
Helmut Eimer, David Germano, and Ronald M. Davidson
Ronald M. Davidson is a contributing author, "Gsar ma Apocrypha: The Creation of Orthodoxy, Gray Texts, and the New Revelation", pp. 203-224.
Subject of The Many Canons of Tibetan Buddhism are both the mainstream Tibetan canons of translated Buddhist classics (known as the Bka' 'gyur & Bstan 'gyur), and the alternative canons of literature of the Nyingma sectarian traditions (known as the Rnying ma rgyud 'bum). The first section discusses the formation and transmission of Tibetan "canonical" texts, but also includes important works of reference, such as a Bka' gdams pa handbook and several unique catalogues. It also features a first report on Tibetan textual transmission in Mongolia. The second section not only presents interpretative analysis of one of the most important alternative canons in Tibet, the Rnying ma rgyud 'bum, but also discusses essential issues of legitimacy, authority and lineage during the "gray" period of the tenth to twelfth centuries which laid the foundation for the formation of all ensuing Tibetan canons. The volume thus develops fresh perspectives on the nature, plurality and contents of canons in Tibetan Buddhism.
Stephen R. Haynes and Paul F. Lakeland
Paul Lakeland is a contributing author, “The Habit of Empathy”.
Book description: Professing in the Postmodern Academy examines the landscape of religiously affiliated higher education in America from the perspective of faculty members critically committed to the future of church-related institutions. The book includes articles on a variety of topics from members of the Rhodes Consultation on the Future of Church-Related College, a project that has involved ninety church-related institutions since 1996.
John C. Hawley and Paul F. Lakeland
Paul Lakeland is a contributing author, “Is the Holy Wholly Other, and is the Wholly Other Really Holy? Reflections on the Postmodern Doctrine of God”.
Book description: The fifteen essays in Divine Aporia are structured to accentuate three major ways of approaching the common theme of otherness or alterity. The book's appeal will be clear to humanists who are interested in interdisciplinary studies, especially scholars of literature and literary criticism, philosophers of religion, feminist theologians, religious ethicists, and those biblical theorists who are integrating current veins in hermeneutical and cultural theories with more traditional tools of textual and historical criticism. The book seeks to record the ongoing conversation between two traditions in the West: the empiricist, philistine, and basely pragmatic, versus the alternative vatic approach that, in the words of John Milbank, "construes empiricism as openness to the strange and unclassifiable, and pragmatism as surrender to the surprise of that which is mediated to us through language."
Michael Warren and Paul F. Lakeland
Paul Lakeland is a contributing author, "Raising Lay Consciousness: the Liberation of the Church”, pp. 163-184.
Book description: This exploration of church culture for pastors and parish ministers of any tradition confronts the hard questions facing church leaders as we enter the third millennium. It helps to integrate the changeless ecclesiastical elements with the changing elements of history and cultural geography.
Michael Downey, Joanne Pierce, and Nancy Dallavalle
Nancy Dallavalle is a contributing author, "Fides Trinitatis: Liturgical Practice and the Economy of Salvation".
Book description: It is almost impossible to overestimate the impact that Josef Andreas Jungmann, SJ, (1889-1975) and his work have had on the liturgical reforms which flowed from Vatican Council II. In Source and Summit editors and authors honor the memory of one of the greatest liturgical scholars of the twentieth century, not just by reflecting on Jungmann's past achievements, but by highlighting the trajectories of his influence on the life of the Church twenty-five years after his death and into the next century.
As a common starting point from which various authors offer reflections, Pierce begins by summarizing Jungmann’s essay "The Defeat of Teutonic Arianism and the Revolution in Religious Culture in the Early Middle Ages." Pierce and Downey then group the essays of Source and Summit into four general categories, which reflect four governing concerns: Jungmann’s own context, historical, and theological considerations, differing perspectives, and present and future implications. The first two groups of articles address the context out of which Jungmann’s essay (and the whole of his work) appears, either theologically or historically. The third group provides a spectrum of reflection from different denominational or methodological “lenses” that serve to expand on Jungmann’s immediate horizon. Finally, the fourth group of essays deal with more theoretical ramifications of Jungmann’s thought and work, critical ramifications that extend beyond the initial context and point to the liturgical future.
Dharmakirti's Thought and Its Impact on Indian and Tibetan Philosophy--Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Dharmakirti and Pramana
Katsuru Shoryu and Ronald M. Davidson
Ronald M. Davidson is a contributing author, "Masquerading as Pramana: Esoteric Buddhism and Epistemological Nomenclature", pp. 25-35.
The proceedings of the Third International Dharmakirti Conference held in Hiroshima in 1997 collect a number of papers devoted to the study of the great seventh-century Buddhist philosopher, Dharmakirti, and his impacts upon the succeeding generations of both Buddhist and non-Buddhist philosophers in India and Tibet. The Second International Dharmakirti Conference was held in Vienna, and its proceedings, Studies in the Buddhist Epistemological Tradition, have been published in this same series. The present volume contains the results of the important researches made by the major Dharmakirtian scholars in the world since the last conference, so that the readers can discover the present state of affairs in the field of Buddhist epistemology and logic. Some papers are concerned with the epistemological topics, such as the notion of perceptibility, and others with the purely logical problems like an empty subject. Some deal with the Buddhist theory of language called apoha in comparison with the views of Nagarjuna, Bhartrhari and others, while others are devoted to the ontological questions, such as how to determine the causal relationship. Several papers discuss Dharmakirti in the light of criticism made by Jaina, Nyaya or Minamsa philosophers. And finally the most remarkable feature of the present volume is the increase of number of contributions devoted to the study of Tibetan tradition of Buddhist epistemology and logic which has been developed under the great influence of Dharmakirti.
Paul F. Lakeland
More than a guidebook to the postmodernity debate, Lakeland's volume clarifies the impulses and critical impetus behind the cultural, intellectual, and scientific expressions of postmodern thought. He goes on to identify the import and issues it presents for religion and for areas of Christian theology. Concentrating on God, Church, and Christ, Lakeland outlines the church's mission to the postmodern world, including a constructive theological apologetics.
Donald W. Musser, Joseph L. Price, and Paul F. Lakeland
Paul Lakeland is a contributing author, "Peter C. Hodgson" pp. 229-235.
Book description: In recent years, the flow of Christian theology has been channeled in diverse streams represented by such trends and movements as black theology, liberation theology, feminist theology, and womanist theology. To survey this abundance and diversity of current Christian theology, this book examines the theologies of representative theologians. Particularly to help students navigate the sea of information, the editors have identified various routes for reading, and have traced several threads or issues common to many of the essays, thus demarcating such recurrent concerns as the ways in which the theologians consider the sources and goals for theology, their variant assumptions and conclusions about the nature of God, their divergent approaches to understanding the person and purpose of the Christ, and their distinct expectations for the destiny of history and faith.
Marc P. Lalonde and Paul F. Lakeland
Paul Lakeland is a contributing author, ""For Whom Do We Write? The Responsibility of the Theologian", pp. 33-48.
Book description: Written in tribute to one of the foremost Catholic theologians in the English-speaking world, the essays in The Promise of Critical Theology address the question: Can critical theology secure its critical operation without undermining its foundation in religious tradition and experience? Is “critical theology” simply an oxymoron when viewed from both sides of the equation?
From Marc Lalonde’s introductory essay which delimits Davis’ fundamental position, that the primary task of critical theology is the critique of religious orthodoxy, the essays examine Davis’ distinction between faith and belief and build upon the promise of critical theology as inextricably bound to the promise of faith. They ask: What is its promise? What particular religious ideas, themes, stories are appropriate for its concrete expression? How can the community of faith receive its transformative message? What might be the contribution of other religious traditions and philosophies?
Essays by Paul Lakeland, Dennis McCann, Kenneth Melchin, Michael Oppenheim and Marsha Hewitt respond to these and other questions and critically relate Davis’ work to ongoing developments in modern theology, critical theory, philosophy and the social sciences. Their diversity attests to the comprehensive scope of Davis’ thought and exemplifies the progressive character of contemporary religious discourse. They honour Davis and illuminate the promise of critical religious thinking in itself.
Donald Lopez and Ronald M. Davidson
Ronald M. Davidson is a contributing author, "Atisa's A Lamp fo the Path to Awakening," and "Saramati's Entering into the Great Vehicle", pp. 290-301 and 402-411.
Book description: for 2007 abridged edition: This anthology, first published in 1995, illustrates the vast scope of Buddhist practice in Asia, past and present. Re-released now in a slimmer but still extensive edition, Buddhism in Practice presents a selection of thirty-five translated texts--each preceded by a substantial introduction by its translator. These unusual sources provides the reader with a sense of the remarkable diversity of the practices of persons who over the course of 2,500 years have been identified, by themselves or by others, as Buddhists. Demonstrating the many continuities among the practices of Buddhist cultures widely separated by both history and geography, Buddhism in Practice continues to provide an ideal introduction to Buddhism and a source of new insights for scholars.