Strategies of Upward Influence: A Cross National Comparison of Hong Kong and U.S. Managers
This study compares American and Hong Kong Chinese strategies for advancing in organisations. Evaluated are the likelihood of using a particular strategy, the perceived risk associated with each strategy, and the ethical appropriateness of the strategy. Multivariate analysis of variance was used to determine overall differences. Univariate analysis of variance identified the particular strategies that differentiated the American and Hong Kong respondents. For example, the Hong Kong Chinese were more likely to use informal information networks. The Americans were more likely to employ more individual strategies, such as image management, in order to differentiate themselves from the competition in their organisation.
Asia Pacific Journal of Management
Ralston, David; Gusfaston, David; Mainiero, Lisa A.; and Umstot, Denis, "Strategies of Upward Influence: A Cross National Comparison of Hong Kong and U.S. Managers" (1993). Business Faculty Publications. 64.
David Ralston, David Gusfaston, Lisa Mainiero, and Denis Umstot. 1993. "Strategies of Upward Influence: A Cross National Comparison of Hong Kong and U.S. Managers", Asia Pacific Journal of Management, 10(2),. 157-163.