A further test of immediacy-learning models: A cross-cultural investigation

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The present study was designed to test and compare the four existing immediacy-learning models, namely the learning model, the motivation model, the affective learning model, and the integrating model, in US, Chinese, German, and Japanese college classrooms. Altogether 695 college students from the four cultures completed the questionnaire, and the results from structural equation modeling indicate that the integrating model produces the best fit to the four-cultural data. Teacher immediacy has both a direct path and indirect paths mediated through affective learning and motivation to cognitive learning. The findings are consistent with both the relevant theories pertinent to immediacy, cognition, and behavior, and previous empirical findings regarding the immediacy-learning relationship.


Copyright 2007 Taylor and Francis

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Journal of Intercultural Communication Research

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Zhang, Qin; Oetzel, John G.; Gao, Xiaofang; Wilcox, Richard G. & Takai, Jiro (2007). "A further test of immediacy-learning models: A cross-cultural investigation." Journal of Intercultural Communication Research, 36(1), 1-13.