Fundamental understanding of interactions at the interface of biological molecules, such as proteins, and nanomaterials is crucial for developing various biocompatible hybrid materials and biosensing platforms. Biosensors comprising of graphene-based conductive nanomaterials offer the advantage of higher sensitivity and reliable diagnosis mainly due to their superior specific surface area and ballistic conductivity. Furthermore, conductive nanocomposite structures that immobilize proteins can synergize the properties of both transducers and molecular recognition elements improving the performance of the biosensing device. Here we report for the first time, using a combined molecular dynamics simulations and experimental approach, the interactions between avidin and graphene for the development of a sensing platform that can be used for the detection of biological macromolecules such as mismatch repair proteins through biotinylated DNA substrates. We find that the interactive forces between avidin and graphene are mainly hydrophobic, along with some van der Waals, electrostatic and hydrogen bonding interactions. Notably, the structure and function of the avidin molecule are largely preserved after its adsorption on the graphene surface. The MD results agree well with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) analysis of avidin immobilized on a graphenated polypyrrole (G-PPy) conductive nanocomposite confirming the adsorption of avidin on graphene nanoplatelets as observed from the Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR).
Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Macwan, Isaac; Khan, Md Daud Hossain; Aphale, Ashish; Singh, Shrishti; Liu, Juan; Higorani, Manju; and Patra, Prabir K., "Interactions Between Avidin and Graphene for Development of a Biosensing Platform" (2017). Engineering Faculty Publications. 304.
Macwan, Isaac, Md Daud Hossain Khan, Ashish Aphale, Shrishti Singh, Juan Liu, Manju Hingorani, and Prabir Patra. “Interactions Between Avidin and Graphene for Development of a Biosensing Platform.” Biosensors & Bioelectronics. 89 (March 2017): 326–33. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bios.2016.07.024.