This paper investigates the proportional-integral-differential (PID) constant temperature control in a closed space of the expanded polystyrene box with Arduino. We use an incandescent light bulb as a heat source. During constant temperature control, Arduino generates pulse width modulation (PWM) signals. The PWM signal, applied to the NPN transistor and zero cross-type SSR, adjusts the alternating current voltage. The IC thermal sensor converts the heat into electrical voltage, which is proportional to the temperature. Because the electrical voltage converted by the IC thermal sensor is low, the operational amplifier amplifies the electrical voltage. The analog-to-digital converter by Arduino digitizes the amplified voltage in 10-bit resolution. The proportional (P) controller, the proportional-differential (PD) controller, the proportional-integral (PI) controller, the integral (I) controller, and the PID controller adjust the constant temperature, respectively. The best PID parameters are kp=100.0, ki=5.0, and kd=5.0 with the I controller working within the deviation ±3 (°C ).



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