The Recent-Traumatic Episode Protocol: Outcome Evaluation and Analysis of Three Case Studies

Document Type


Publication Date



This article evaluates and illustrates the application of the recent-traumatic episode protocol (R-TEP) with three diverse clients: a child with chronic illness, a woman with a significant loss, and an adolescent who self-harmed. The R-TEP is an adaptation of the Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) protocol for early EMDR intervention. Sessions are presented in detail to highlight the shifts in information processing that occur during treatment. Observed markers used to analyze the flow of processing are identified, which include distancing from the trauma; reduction in negative affect or change in reported emotions; accessing more adaptive information; changes in the Subjective Units of Disturbance scale; and the Validity of Cognition scale and Impact of Event Scale--Revised indicating shifts in perception of the traumatic memory. Pre-post R-TEP treatment gains were noted for all clients, with changes in behavior and functioning. Theoretical underpinnings of the R-TEP are discussed with respect to the reported observations. The specific contribution of the protocol is highlighted, considering its procedural components and related plausible mechanisms of change.


Copyright 2011 Copyright Springer Publishing Company

A link to full text has been provided for authorized users.

Publication Title

Journal of EMDR Practice and Research

Published Citation

Tofani, L. R., & Wheeler, K. (2011). The recent-traumatic episode protocol: Outcome evaluation and analysis of three case studies. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 5(3), 95-110.