Hypertension and related lifestyle factors among persons living in rural Nicaragua

Document Type


Publication Date



Background: Globally about 40% of adults are diagnosed with hypertension, with high-income countries having a lower prevalence than low-income countries. However, there are limited data about adult hypertension prevalence in Nicaragua. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of hypertension in rural coffee farm workers.

Methods: A convenience sample of 229 adult coffee farm workers was used. Blood pressure was measured using an established protocol and the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC-7) guidelines.

Results: Nearly 60% of the sample reported at least one prior blood pressure measurement. Hypertension was detected in 16.7% of males and 26.3% of females (20.7% of the total). Prehypertension was detected in 59.3% of males and 27.7% of females (46.2% of the total). Of the men, 51.4% reported smoking at least some days and just over one third of the sample reported adding extra salt to their food.

Discussion: While the prevalence of hypertension in this sample is lower than global estimates, almost half of the sample had prehypertension, demonstrating an area where health promotion efforts could be focused. Given the limited funding and resources often available in these areas, increasing disease prevention efforts (including health promotion and wellness programs) and establishing settings that provide outreach and education, may improve chronic disease management and prevent comorbidities from occurring.


Copyright 2016 Elsevier

A link to full text has been provided for authorized users.

Publication Title

Applied Nursing Research

Published Citation

Alicea-Planas, J., Greiner, L., & Greiner, P. A. (2016). Hypertension and related lifestyle factors among persons living in rural Nicaragua. Applied Nursing Research, 29, 43-46. doi:10.1016/j.apnr.2015.05.010.



Peer Reviewed