Document Type


Article Version


Publication Date



The use of long‐acting reversible contraception, namely, intrauterine device (IUDs) and the subdermal implant, has been recommended to address the high rate of the unintended pregnancy in the United States. IUDs are a safe, highly effective contraceptive method, suitable for most women. The underutilization of IUDs arises in part from the lack of translation of best practices in the clinical setting as well as fears and misperceptions about this contraceptive method held by health care providers and women. This article reviews screening and management of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis infection and pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) in women who are using or want to use an IUD. An IUD may be inserted without prior screening for N gonorrhoeae or C trachomatis in women who are at low risk for sexually transmitted infections and asymptomatic. An in situ IUD may remain in the uterus during and after treatment for gonococcal infection, chlamydial infection, or PID. The risk of PID with an IUD in situ is less than 1%. Following IUD best practices, including their use in the context of sexually transmitted infections, can increase the availability of this method for suitable candidates and decrease the unintended pregnancy rate.


© 2020 by the American College of Nurse‐Midwives. All rights reserved.

The post-print version has been archived here with permission from the copyright holder under a CC-BY-NC-ND license.

Publication Title

Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health

Published Citation

Esposito, Christa Palancia. "Intrauterine Devices in the Context of Gonococcal Infection, Chlamydial Infection, and Pelvic Inflammatory Disease: Not Mutually Exclusive." Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health 65, no. 4 (2020): 562-566.



Peer Reviewed