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The importance of early intervention with children who are at risk for mental health problems is widely recognized. Relationships with significant adults (parents, other caregivers, and teachers) are critically important in young children's lives and can make a tremendous difference in the trajectory of a child's future. This study utilized a waiting-control group design to examine the effects on student behavior and parent stress of play-based interventions designed to improve the relationships between parents and their children (i.e., Filial Therapy), and teachers and their students (i.e., Kinder Training). To incorporate the benefits of group work, the eight-week intervention was delivered to parents in a small-group format. Teachers participated in a one-day group training with weekly coaching and dyadic consultation for on-going support. Results at post-intervention indicated that teachers perceived children in the intervention group to exhibit significantly less problem behavior than students in the waiting-control group. Although results suggest that the intervention had no demonstrable effect on parent stress, qualitative results indicate otherwise. Implications for practice and research are discussed.


2009. Copyright Guilford Press. Reprinted with permission of The Guilford Press.

Publication Title

International Journal of Group Psychotherapy

Published Citation

Draper, K., Siegel, C., White, J., Solis, C.M., & Mishna, F. (2009). Preschoolers, Parents, and Teachers (PPT): A Preventive Intervention with an At-Risk Population. International Journal of Group Psychotherapy, 59(2), 221-242.



Peer Reviewed